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历史上那些意外发明出来的好东西:冰棒、啤酒...

2019-09-23 14:13

来源:新东方英语

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  三、青霉素

  青霉素的产生,来源于一次实验失误。这也许是人类历史上最伟大的错误之一吧!

  Before penicillin(盘尼西林,即青霉素) — the world's first mass-produced antibiotic drug — millions of people died each year from infected(身体部位或伤口受感染的) wounds and contagious(感染性的;会蔓延的) bacterial diseases like scarlet fever(猩红热).

  在青霉素——这个世界上第一种大规模生产的抗生素药物——问世之前,每年有数百万人死于伤口感染和像猩红热这样的传染性细菌疾病。

  In World War II, bottles of penicillin saved countless lives in battlefield hospitals. Today, we still rely heavily on antibiotics(抗生素) to treat everything from common ear infections to potentially deadly bacterial outbreaks. Yes, mankind owes a tremendous debt to Dr. Alexander Fleming and his marvelous mistake.

  在第二次世界大战期间,青霉素拯救了战场上无数的生命。今天,我们仍然非常依赖抗生素来治疗各种疾病,从常见的耳道感染到潜在的致命细菌爆发。是的,那位亚历山大·弗莱明博士和他那不可思议的小差错,给了全人类巨大的福报。

  Mistake? Absolutely. Scottish-born Dr. Fleming was in his lab in 1928 researching the flu virus(流感病毒) when he noticed that one of his bacteria cultures was infected with a fungus(真菌,霉菌,菌类). Most scientists would have tossed the spoiled petri dish in the trash, but not Fleming. Six years earlier, he had discovered the mild antibiotic properties of human tears when one of his own accidentally dripped into a bacterial sample. Even mistakes, Fleming learned, had scientific value.

  小差错?是的,绝对的失误。1928年,出生于苏格兰的弗莱明博士在实验室里研究流感病毒时,发现他的一种细菌培养群感染了一种真菌。大多数科学家都会把这个已经被污染的培养皿扔进垃圾桶,但弗莱明不会。因为在6年前,当他的一滴眼泪不小心滴落到了细菌样本里后,他发现人类的眼泪含有一种温和的抗生素特性。弗莱明从那时起就意识到,即使是实验中的失误,也是有科学价值的。

  Upon closer inspection, Fleming noticed a clear ring around the fungus, indicating that it was toxic to the staphylococcus(葡萄球菌) bacteria in the dish. Fleming carefully isolated the mold, which was of the genus Penicillium, and named his new wonder drug penicillin. The rest, as they say, is fungus history. Fleming was awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1945.

  经过仔细观察,弗莱明注意到这种真菌周围有一个清晰的环,就是这个环上的毒素感染了培养皿中的葡萄球菌。弗莱明仔细地分离出霉菌,这是青霉素属种,所以命名他的新神奇药物为青霉素。剩下的,就像他们说的,就是真菌的历史。弗莱明于1945年获得诺贝尔生理学或医学奖。

  四、滚石乐队

  滚石乐队(The Rolling Stones)成立于1962年,半个多世纪以来,一直代表着一代又一代人心目中不灭的摇滚梦想。

  但你们知道吗,这个乐队的成立完全是个巧合哦!

  Mick Jagger and Keith Richards are show in a 1963 photo of the Rolling Stones; the group was formed after Mick and Keith met by chance in a railway station. Life-saving medical breakthrough and frozen desserts aren't the only accidental discoveries that have made the world a happier place. How about the Rolling Stones?

  米克·贾格尔和基思·理查兹在这张1963年拍摄的滚石乐队合照中同时出现;而这个乐队就是在米克和基思于火车站偶然相遇后成立的。一个能够拯救生命的医学突破,或者是一个冷冻甜点,它们并不是唯一能让世界变得更幸福的意外发现。再加一个滚石乐队怎么样?

  On his way to art college, Richards, electric guitar case over his shoulder, struck up(开始、建立起) a conversation on platform two with Jagger (on his way to the London School of Economics) about the blues records Jagger was carrying. Richards recognized him as they'd attended the same primary school, and they talked about music all through the one-hour commute(通勤) into London. The connection was so strong that Jagger invited Richards to join his band, Little Boy Blue and the Blue Boys.

  当时理查兹正在去往艺术学院的路上,肩上还背着电吉他盒,就在2号站台上,他与正在去往伦敦经济学院的贾格尔谈起了他随身携带的蓝调唱片。理查兹随即认出了他们是小学校友,并在去往伦敦的一个小时车程中畅谈了一路音乐。他们产生了如此强大而紧密的共鸣,所以贾格尔邀请理查兹加入他的乐队,名字叫做“蓝色小子和忧郁男孩们”。

  Jagger and Richards went on to form the Rolling Stones — originally the Rollin' Stones — with Brian Jones and Ian Stewart in 1962, less than a year after that fateful meeting. Their instant(瞬间的,立即的,片刻的) friendship became one of the most fruitful songwriting partnerships in rock history. Today, Rolling Stones fans still make pilgrimages(朝圣) to Dartford Station's platform two.

  1962年,贾格尔、理查兹两人与布莱恩·琼斯和伊恩·斯图尔特共同组建了滚石乐队,这时距离他们命运般的相遇还不到一年。他们瞬间达成的友谊,让他们成为了摇滚史上最富有成果的歌曲创作团队之一。现如今,滚石乐队的粉丝们仍然会去达特福德车站的二号站台朝圣。

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