新东方网>英语>英语学习>英语阅读>双语新闻>生活百科>正文

冷知识:握手是怎么成为通用的问候方式的?

2020-04-15 15:13

来源:中国日报网

作者:

  为了阻止新冠病毒的传播,人们已经停止握手,改为其他问候方式。握手是从什么时候起成为现代通用的问候方式的呢?历史学家表示,这个真不太好说。

  Shaking hands seems like a gesture that has been around forever. Indeed, a throne base from the reign of ancient Assyria's Shalmaneser III in the 9th century BCE clearly shows two figures clasping hands. The Iliad, usually dated to the 8th century BCE, mentions that two characters “clasped each other's hands and pledged their faith.” Centuries later, Shakespeare wrote in As You Like It that two characters “shook hands and swore brothers.” It might seem like shaking hands is an ancient custom, the roots of which are lost to the sands of time.

  握手作为一种打招呼的方式似乎一直都存在。确实,公元前9世纪亚述国王撒缦以色三世统治时期的宝座上就刻着两个人握手的图案。通常认为创作于公元前8世纪的《伊利亚德》也提到,两个角色“握住彼此的手,以表忠心”。几个世纪之后,莎士比亚在《皆大欢喜》中写道,两个角色“握手并结为兄弟”。握手也许看起来是一种古老的习俗,但随着时间的流逝,已经难以寻根溯源。

  Except.

  不过也未必。

  Historians who have pored over old etiquette books have noticed that handshaking in the modern sense of a greeting doesn’t appear until the mid-19th century, when it was considered a slightly improper gesture that should only be used with friends. But if Shakespeare was writing about shaking hands a few hundred years earlier, what happened?

  翻遍礼仪典籍的历史学家注意到,握手作为现代的问候方式直到19世纪中期才出现,当时握手被认为是一种有点不得体的姿势,只有在朋友之间才能使用。但既然莎士比亚在几百年前就把握手写进了书中,那么这中间发生了什么呢?

  DEFINING THE HANDSHAKE

  握手的内涵

  According to author Torbjörn Lundmark in his Tales of Hi and Bye: Greeting and Parting Rituals Around the World, the problem comes in differing definitions of the handshake. The early handshakes mentioned above were part of making deals or burying the hatchet; Shalmaneser III’s throne base references him honoring a treaty with the Babylonian king during a revolt. In the Iliad, Diomedes and Glaucus shook hands when they realized they were “guest-friends,” and Diomedes proclaimed “Let’s not try to kill each other.” Shakespeare was similarly referencing settlement of a conflict.

  根据作家托尔伯恩·德马克的著作《打招呼的故事:世界各地欢迎和告别的礼仪》,问题来自握手定义的差别。上述的早期握手是达成协议或和解的一部分:撒缦以色三世的宝座上刻画的是他在一次叛乱中履行和巴比伦国王的合约;在《伊利亚德》中,狄俄墨得斯和格劳克斯在意识到他们是“客人朋友”时握了手,狄俄墨得斯宣称“让我们不要再与彼此为敌”;同样,莎士比亚也是在描述解决冲突的场面。

  bury the hatchet: v. 和解;停战

  The modern handshake as a form of greeting is harder to trace. Traditionally, the origins are often given to the Quakers. But as Dutch sociologist Herman Roodenburg—the chief authority for the history of handshaking—wrote in a chapter of an anthology called A Cultural History of Gesture, “More than in any other field, that of the study of gesture is one in which the historian has to make the most of only a few clues”.

  作为问候方式的现代握手起源更难追溯。传统上,人们通常认为贵格会信徒是最早用握手来打招呼的。但荷兰社会学家赫尔曼·卢登伯格——握手史的权威人物——在选集《手势的文化历史》的一章中写道:“和其他领域相比,历史学家只能通过寥寥无几的线索来研究手势。”

  One of the earliest clues he cites is a 16th-century German translation of the French writer Rabelais’s Gargantua and Pantagruel. When one character meets Gargantua, Rabelais writes (in one modern English translation), “he was greeted with a thousand caresses, a thousand embraces, a thousand good-days.” But according to Roodenburg, the 16th-century German translation adds references to shaking hands.

  他提到的最早的一个线索是16世纪法国作家拉伯雷的《巨人传》的德语译本。在现代英语译本中,当一个角色遇到卡冈都亚时,拉伯雷写道:“欢迎他的是一千个爱抚、一千个拥抱和一千个问候。”但是卢登伯格指出,16世纪的德语译本提到了握手。

  There's additional evidence for a handshaking tradition in that era: In 1607 the author James Cleland (believed to have been a Scotsman living in England) proclaimed that instead of things like bowing down to everyone’s shoes and kissing hands, he’d rather “retaine our good olde Scottish shaking of the two right hands together at meeting with an vncouered head".

  还有一个握手传统起源于那个年代的证据:1607年作家詹姆士·克雷兰德(据认为是生活在英格兰的一个苏格兰人)宣称,与其让他深深地鞠躬和亲吻别人的手,他宁愿“保持古老的苏格兰习俗,在会面时低头伸出右手相握”。

资料下载

  • 人教版初中所有英语单词(含七八九册)

    3342次下载 点击下载
  • 初中英语语法大全

    2621次下载 点击下载
  • 初中英语重点短语和句型(适合所有年级)

    4734次下载 点击下载
  • 新型肺炎有关话题英语作文

    1854次下载 点击下载
  • 高考英语词汇必备3500

    1391次下载 点击下载
  • 45本适合中学生的入门级英语读物

    1391次下载 点击下载
名称名称
300次下载

微信扫码关注"新东方网"服务号

回复""立刻获取!

猜你喜欢

  • 听力
  • 口语
  • 阅读
  • 娱乐
  • 词汇
  • 写作

            新东方英语辅导专区

            班级名称 上课地点 上课时间 费用 详细

            焦点推荐

            版权及免责声明

            凡本网注明"稿件来源:新东方"的所有文字、图片和音视频稿件,版权均属新东方教育科技集团(含本网和新东方网) 所有,任何媒体、网站或个人未经本网协议授权不得转载、链接、转贴或以其他任何方式复制、发表。已经本网协议授权的媒体、网站,在下载使用时必须注明"稿件来源:新东方",违者本网将依法追究法律责任。

            本网未注明"稿件来源:新东方"的文/图等稿件均为转载稿,本网转载仅基于传递更多信息之目的,并不意味着赞同转载稿的观点或证实其内容的真实性。如其他媒体、网站或个人从本网下载使用,必须保留本网注明的"稿件来源",并自负版权等法律责任。如擅自篡改为"稿件来源:新东方",本网将依法追究法律责任。

            如本网转载稿涉及版权等问题,请作者见稿后在两周内速来电与新东方网联系,电话:010-60908555。

            热搜关键词