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双语:表情符号emoji的前世今生

2018-01-08 11:00

来源:VOA

作者:

  English has always been made of up of words from many languages. Most English words come from Latin, Germanic languages and French.

  英语中包含很多来自其他语言的词。大多数英语单词都是来自拉丁语,日耳曼语系的语言,和法语。

  But, in the last several hundred years, English has borrowed words and terms from other languages. These so-called “borrowed” words are not returned, of course. Rather, they remain part of a language for a very long time.

  但是近几百年,英语也从其他几种语言中“借了”不少词,当然,这些“借来的”词是不会还的,他们都变成了英语的一部分。

  You can learn a lot about history and culture by looking at what led to the borrowing of certain words. Today, we will tell you the story of words that English has borrowed from Japanese.

  观察外来词我们可以学到一些历史、文化方面的知识。那今天呢,我们就来介绍几个从日语中“借来”的英语单词。

  It may surprise you that English has taken more than a dozen words from Japanese.

  出乎意料,英语中不少词都是来自日语呢。

  Emoji

  表情符号

  Let’s start with emoji. About 10 years ago, English speakers used the word emoticons for computer keyboard symbols that express emotion in electronic messages and on the Internet. That was before the invention of smiley face icons.

  从表情符号开始讲吧。大概十年前,英语中"emoticons"用这个单词来表示发短信或者网络消息时键盘上的表情符。那时候还没有笑脸表情符号呢。

  Then, in the late 1990s, a Japanese computer programmer named Shigetaku Kurita changed everything when he invented emoji* -- images, icons and symbols that express meaning without words.

  在二十世纪九十年代末,日本程序员Shigetaku Kurita改变了一切。他发明了表情符号,有了各种各样的图标和符号,不用词汇也可以传达意思了。

  In Japanese, the word emoji means “pictograph” and comes from the word e meaning “picture” and moji, meaning “letter” or “character.” The similarity to the English word “emotion” is only by chance.

  在日语中,emoji这个单词的意思是“象形图画”的意思,"e"意思是“图画”,"moji"的意思是“字母,字”。所以说,和英语单词"emotion"拼写有些相似纯属是巧合。

  Skosh

  一点儿

  Another word English borrowed from Japanese is skosh.The English meaning of skosh is “a small amount.” The word is used informally in English.

  另一个词是"skosh" 这个词的意思是“一点点”,用于口语中。

  While the English word is a noun, the Merriam-Webster Dictionary notes that, sometimes we also use the word as an adverb, such as in the example “I’m a skosh hungry” In other words: "I’m a little bit hungry."

  虽然这个词是名词,但是韦氏词典指出,这个词也可以用作副词。比如在句子中"I’m a skosh hungry", 就相当于"I’m a little hungry" (意思是:我有点饿了。)

  Tycoon

  巨头,大亨

  Another borrowed Japanese word that describes someone who holds a lot of power is tycoon. In English, the word refers to a very wealthy and powerful businessperson.

  另一个来源于日语表达有权势的词是"tycoon",在英语中,这个单词指工商界有钱有势的大亨。

  Hunky-dory

  了不起的,极好的

  Our final example today is hunky-dory. Today, this adjective means “fine” or “free of trouble or problems.”

  最后一个词呢是hunky-dory. 这个形容词的意思是“好的”,或者“令人满意,没有问题”的。

  The word hunky-dory is actually a combination of words from two languages. The first part of the word – hunky – means “in a safe position.” Word experts say it is from the Dutch word honk, which means "post” or “station.”

  这个单词是来自两种语言的混合体。单词的第一部分"hunky"意思是"处在安全的位置"。词汇专家称这个词来源于荷兰语"honk",意思是“位置”或“站”。

  The story of the second part of the word – dory – is less clear. One theory from 1876 links the word hunky-dory to the Japanese word honcho-dori. This was believed to be a street in Japan where American sailors went to have fun while they were stationed there.

  后半部分"dory"就容易解释多了。1876年的一个理论认为,"hunky-dory"和日本的单词"honcho-dori"有关。这是美军驻扎日本是经常去玩乐的一条街道。

  However, clear evidence does not exist to prove this is true. What is clear, though, is that the pronunciation of the word for “street” in Japanese sounds a lot like “dory.”

  虽然没有明确证据证明其真实性,但确实日语中"街道"一词的发音和"dory"有点像。

(编辑:何莹莹)

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