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柯林斯字典年度词汇:脱欧击败特朗普主义

2016-11-08 11:47

来源:中国日报网

作者:

  英国柯林斯字典(Collins Dictionary)公布年度十大词汇,英国脱欧(Brexit)登上冠军。《柯林斯英语词典》出版商表示,自从2013年“脱欧”一词被首次提出后,到今年6月公投临近,“脱欧”的使用率超过了3400%,如此高频的出现度前所未有。

  It is a world where the most intimate feelings and desires can be portrayed with a single emoticon.

  当今世界,即使是最私密的情感和渴望,人们都可以用一个简单的表情符号来传达。

  And it seems the fleeting nature of social media and texting is having an impact on the English language as the words we most frequently use are getting shorter.

  社交媒体及短信的迅捷性已对英语产生了影响,比方说,我们最常用的词语正在变得越来越短。

  Helen Newstead, the head of language content at Collins, said its 2016 "words of the year" list has been strongly influenced by the younger generation and not only includes current words like Brexit but also short phrases from social media and a four-letter acronym; Jomo.

  柯林斯的语境部负责人海伦·纽斯戴德声称,2016年柯林斯“年度词汇”榜单深受年轻一代的影响,它不仅包括像“英国退欧”这种最新词汇,也囊括来自社交媒体的短语,甚至还有一个四个字母的缩略语——JOMO(享受自己的乐趣)。

  Jomo stands for the joy of missing out and is used when one decides to pass up on a party invitation without any fear of missing the event.

  JOMO即错过的乐趣。比如说,当你拒绝参加一个聚会,却不担心错过聚会的乐趣时,就可以使用这个词。

  It is thought to be the first time an acronym has been included on the Collins list, which has been issued since 2012 and celebrates terms that have enjoyed a significant rise in usage.

  JOMO的上榜被认为是缩略词被首次纳入2012年始发的柯林斯榜单,这是词语用法的一次重大突破。

  The term joins “throw shade”, a verb which describes when someone publicly shows contempt, and mic drop, the act of pretending to drop a microphone after speaking.

  “Throw shade”指某人公开表示自己的蔑视;而“丢麦克风”则用于指演讲后假装丢掉麦克风的动作。

  The latter, which experts said was being used around 14 times more than last year, has been made particularly popular on Twitter and Facebook with celebrities, politicians and members of the Royal family, including Prince Harry and Barack Obama, miming the gesture in viral videos and GIFs.

  据专家统计,“丢麦克风”的使用次数与去年相比增加了14倍。该词在推特和脸书上格外受到名人、政治家和皇室成员的欢迎,其中包括哈里王子及贝拉克 奥巴马等人。该动作在病毒视频(受到爆炸式增长关注的视频)及GIF动画里被不停模仿。

  Other popular terms identified by Collins include dude food, junk food considered particularly appealing to men, sharenting, the habitual use of social media to share images or news about children, and uberisation, a business model where services are offered directly to a customer, for example via a mobile phone.

  同样上榜的其他热词包括:“纯爷们美食”,指格外吸引男性食客的简单味美的快餐;“晒娃成癖”,指在社交媒体上分享孩子的照片和新鲜事的习惯;“优步化”指将服务直接提供给顾客(譬如通过手机)的商业模式。

  2016 | Collins Words of the Year

  2016柯林斯年度词汇榜

  Brexit (noun):

  英国脱欧(名词)

  The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union

  指英国退出欧盟。

  Dude food (noun):

  纯爷们美食(名词)

  Junk food such as hot dogs or burgers, which are considered particularly appealing to men

  指格外吸引男性食客的快餐,比如热狗或者汉堡。

  Hygge (noun):

  随性的舒适(名词)

  A concept, originating in Denmark, of creating cosy and convivial atmospheres that promote well-being

  起源于丹麦的一种理念,指营造舒适惬意的氛围来提升生活品质。

  Jomo (noun acronym, joy of missing out):

  错过的乐趣(名词,缩略词)

  Pleasure gained from enjoying ones current activities without worrying that other people are having more fun

  享受自己当下时光而不担心他人更为快乐。

  Mic drop (noun):

  丢麦克风(名词)

  A theatrical gesture in which a person drops (or imitates the action of dropping) a hand-held microphone to the ground as the finale to a speech or performance

  指某人把一个手持麦克风丢到(或假装丢到)地上以示演说或表演结束的戏剧性动作。

  Sharenting (noun):

  晒娃成癖(名词)

  The habitual use of social media to share news and images of one's children

  指在社交媒体上过度分享孩子照片和新鲜事的习惯。

  Snowflake generation (noun):

  雪花一代(名词)

  The young adults of the 2010s, who are viewed as being less resilient and more prone to taking offence than previous generations

  指最近几年的青年。与以往几代人相比,他们被认为是适应能力更弱并更易发怒的一代。

  Throw shade (verb):

  公开蔑视(动词)

  To make a public show of contempt for someone or something, often in a subtle or non-verbal manner

  通常指以不易察觉或非口头的方式公开表示对某人或某物的蔑视。

  Trumpism (noun): 特朗普主义(名词)

  (1) the policies advocated by the US politician Donald Trump, especially those involving a rejection of the current political establishment and the vigorous pursuit of American national interests (2) a controversial or outrageous statement attributed to Donald Trump

  指(1)美国政客唐纳德 特朗普提倡的政策,特指那些涉及反对现有政治机构及执着追求美国国家利益的政策;(2)唐纳德 特朗普那些充满争议且离谱的言论。

  Uberization (noun):

  优步化(名词)

  The adoption of a business model in which services are offered on demand through direct contact between a customer and supplier, usually via mobile technology.

  指一种通过顾客和服务者直接联系(通常通过移动技术)实现服务直接对接需求的商业模式的应用。

  The list also carries on last year's theme and reflects that many now strive to live sensible lives, which focus on well-being.

  词汇榜仍旧沿用去年主题,反映出许多人努力追求理性健康生活的现状,关注大众的生活品质。

  The use of hygge, the concept of creating a cosy and convivial atmosphere, has almost doubled since last year, experts said.

  有专家称,“随性的舒适”一词(即营造惬意舒适的氛围)的使用次数,自去年起翻了近一倍。

  Ms Newstead put the changing nature of language down to social media where space is often restricted and messages are sent in haste.

  纽斯戴德女士认为,社交媒体对发言字数的限制,以及人们发送信息时的匆忙导致了语言特性的改变。

  An analysis of the previous "words of the year" lists by The Telegraph shows the average length of a one-word term has decreased from 9.3 letters per word to 7.3 in the last four years.

  《每日电讯报》关于之前“年度词汇榜”的分析表明,在过去四年间,单词词语所含的平均字母数已从9.3个字母下降到7.3个字母。

  "Most of this year's words are used by or related to the generation born towards the end of the last century their contribution to the constant evolution of the English language should not be overlooked", she said.

  “今年的大部分年度词汇都是上世纪末出生的一代使用的或与他们有关的,这代人对英语持续演化的影响不应被忽视。”她说。

  Ms Newstead said words that end up on the final cut are often ones that encapsulate a social trend.

  纽斯戴德女士还称,最终上榜的词汇通常能够概括近来的社会潮流。

  This year, the experts decided the word of the year was Brexit after it saw an unprecedented upsurge of more than 3,400 percent.

  今年,在目睹“英国脱欧”一词的使用率经历前所未有的飙升(超过3400%)后,专家组决定将其定为年度词汇。

  Previous winning words have included binge-watch, photobomb and geek.

  以往的年度词汇包括“煲剧”、“抢镜”及“极客”等。

(编辑:何莹莹)

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