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motherland?fatherland?祖国到底是用哪个词?

2019-10-10 13:39

来源:沪江

作者:

  The terms motherland and fatherland both refer to one’s native country, one’s country of origin, or the home of one’s ancestors. So, what’s the difference between motherland and others fatherland?

  motherland和fatherland两个词都是指一个人的祖国,原籍国或祖先的家。那么,motherland和fatherland有什么区别?

  Whether a particular group uses (their language’s equivalent of, if they have one) motherland or fatherland is a matter of culture, tradition, or, in some instances, personal preference.

  某个特定群体使用motherland还是fatherland(如果有,他们的语言是否等同)是一个文化,传统,或在某些情况下,个人偏好的问题。

  In English, fatherland is the older of the two. It’s first recorded in the early 1200s and may be influenced by the Latin patria, meaning “fatherland.” Motherland is attested by the mid-1500s; we can find the French equivalent, terre mere, slightly earlier.

  用英语来说,fatherland是两者中的较大者。它最早纪录出现在1200年代初,可能会受到拉丁语patria(意为“祖国”)的影响。motherland在1500年代中期得到证明。我们可以在稍早的时候找到与法国相当的terre mere。

  Who uses motherland?

  谁使用motherland?

  The people of some countries have historically personified their country in feminine ways. To them, their home country is (in translation) the motherland.

  历史上有些国家的人民以女性化的方式使国家形象化。对他们来说,他们的祖国是祖国。

  For example, a common personification of Russia is Mother Russia (Matushka Rosa). During the movement for Indian independence of the late 1800s, the concept of Bharat Mata (or Mother India) emerged. Both of these personifications have been linked to ancient mother goddesses.

  例如,俄罗斯的一个常见拟人化是俄罗斯母亲(Matushka Rosa)。在1800年代后期印度独立运动中,出现了巴拉特·马塔(Bharat Mata)(或印度母亲)的概念。这两个拟人化都与古老的母亲女神有关。

  Indeed, languages and cultures have long personified the earth as female. English has Mother Earth (recorded since the 1500s), with antecedents in the Latin Mater Terraand German Mutter Erde. Mother goddesses abound in world culture.

  确实,语言和文化早已将地球化为女性。英语拥有大地母亲(自1500年代以来有记载),其前身是拉丁语Mater Terraand德语Mutter Erde。母亲女神在世界文化中比比皆是。

  Who uses fatherland?

  谁使用fatherland?

  Some cultures personify their lands as masculine. The German national anthem features verses that translate to “Unity and justice and freedom / For the German fatherland!” (German, Vaterland).

  一些文化将其土地拟人化为男性。德国国歌的经文翻译成“团结,正义与自由/为了德国的祖国!”(德国,瓦特兰)。

  The Netherlands (Dutch, vaderland), as well as the Scandinavian countries, have similar forms of fatherland. Among many others, people of the Slavic (e.g., Czech, otčina) and Baltic nations (e.g., Estonian, isamaa) also tend to refer to their homeland as the fatherland.

  荷兰(荷兰,维德兰)以及斯堪的纳维亚国家也有类似的祖国形式。在许多其他国家中,斯拉夫(例如捷克,otčina)和波罗的海国家(例如爱沙尼亚,伊萨玛(Isamaa))的人也倾向于将其祖国称为fatherland。

  Even in English in fatherland can convey patriotic connotations. Let’s revisit Latin patria. That word comes from the Latin for “father,” pater, which is related to the English word …

  祖国甚至用英语也能传达出爱国主义的内涵。让我们回顾一下拉丁语中的祖国一词。这个词来自拉丁语“ father”,与英语单词“ patriot”有关。

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