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英语写作技巧:4条建议教你如何措辞

2019-01-08 11:35

来源:沪江

作者:

  Selecting the right words is an essential part of communicating, whether you’re writing a wedding speech or a technical report. You need to choose words that are appropriate for your subject matter, that pitch your message at the right level for your audience, and words that most clearly convey what you are trying to say.

  无论你在写婚礼致辞还是科技报告,选择正确的词对表达信息而言都十分重要。你需要选择适用于主题的词汇,向特定受众清晰地表达你的想法。

  1. Choose everyday words 选择日常用词

  It is true that English has a vast and varied vocabulary. However, we mostly communicate using only a fraction of those words. They are all standard, everyday words such as tall, eat, forget, and good. Those are the words that people are most used to. So, if you use them rather than more flowery words, your writing will be easier for people to read and process.

  英语的词汇的确丰富多样,但在交流时我们多数只用到一小部分。这些词汇都是标准的日常用词,如:tall(高的),eat(吃),forget(忘记),good(好的)。这些都是人们最常用的词。所以,如果你的文章少用华丽辞藻而多用日常用词,对读者而言便更晓畅明了。

  2. Choose appropriate formal, neutral, and informal words 选择恰当的正式用语、中性词、非正式用语

  English is very rich in synonyms. But very often synonyms do not mean exactly the same thing. They are used in distinct styles of writing; some are more formal; some are slangy.For example, dozens of words express the idea ‘to steal’, but they are all different. Just to examine three of them: purloin is definitely formal, while steal is ‘neutral’, that is to say it is neither formal nor informal. But nick is definitely informal: you would be surprised to find it in a newspaper report of a crime!

  英语中有很多近义词,但近义词并非意思完全一致。近义词用于不同的写作风格,有些正式,有些口语化。比如,很多词都表达“偷”这一概念,但又都不尽相同。我们以其中三个词为例:“purloin”一定是正式用语,而“steal”则是中性词,既不是正式用语也不是非正式用语。然而,“nick”则一定是非正式用语。如果你在犯罪新闻报导上看到它,一定会惊讶万分。

  3. Use inclusive vocabulary 使用包容性词汇

  It is important to respect groups in society such as people with disabilities, older people, ethnic minorities, and so forth. One way of doing this is to choose appropriate, non-stereotyping words. In particular, the words you use should be gender-inclusive and not suggest a masculine bias. There are several ways of doing this. For example, when referring to professions it is nowadays standard to avoid words that refer only to one sex, such as actress (use actor) or policeman (use police officer).

  尊重社会不同群体很重要,特殊群体有残障人士、老年人、少数民族群体等等。表达尊重的一种途径就是使用恰当的、非歧视性的语言。尤为重要的是,你应当选择不分性别的词汇,而不能暗含对男性的偏袒。这样做的方式有很多。举个例子,如今提及到某种职业,较为规范的做法是避免使用只涉及某一性别的词语,如用actor来替代actress,用police officer替代policeman。

  4. Enrich your vocabulary 丰富词汇量

  By widening your vocabulary you will have more words to choose from, which means you are more likely to know a word that most precisely conveys your message. Reading is an excellent way to learn new words. However, before you use them, be sure to check the meanings of any words that are new to you in a dictionary!

  通过扩大词汇量,你有更多的词汇可供选择,这就意味着很有可能你可以找到一个能够最精确表达你想法的词语。阅读是学习新单词的最佳途径。但是,在使用任何一个新单词之前,请务必翻翻字典查词意!

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