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高分写作指导:6条建议,让你的写作更上一个台阶

2019-01-08 11:29

来源:牛津词典

作者:

  Whatever your reason for putting words on the page, and whatever your style, there are some universal tips that will help you tailor your message and improve your writing:

  无论写作是出于什么原因,采用何种风格,都有通用的写作建议来帮你调整信息,改善写作:

  1 Be clear about your purpose

  1 明确目的

  The most basic question to ask yourself before you start is why you are writing. In an academic essay or assignment, your purpose is to convey information and facts and draw conclusions. In a letter of complaint you will be looking for a specific result, such as a refund. Keep your purpose in mind at all times to avoid going off topic. Even better: write it down in as few words as possible, print it out, and keep it next to you as you write.

  开始写作前最基本的问题就是问清自己为何写作。写学术论文旨在传达信息、举例论证并得出结论。写投诉信则旨在寻求结果,比如要求退款。你要时刻记住写作目的以防跑题。更好的做法是:把目的用尽量简短的话写下来,或者打印出来,写作的时候放在身边。

  2 Choose the appropriate style

  2 选择合适的风格

  In conversation, we instinctively adapt what we say and how we say it to suit the people we are talking to. We talk to our manager or lecturer in one way, to friends in another, and so on. For good writing it is essential to do the same: choose a writing style and words that the people for whom you are writing will feel comfortable with and react well to.

  在谈话时,我们会自觉的选择说话的内容和方式以适应不同的对象。我们和经理或者老师交流采用一种方式,和朋友用另一种方式,等等。一篇好的文章就如同谈话:选择让阅读者感到舒适并能给予良好回应的风格和措辞。

  3 Start with a plan

  3 拟定提纲

  Far too often people write without a plan. The result is often disjointed writing, with parts that don’t connect. Whether you are writing a 10,000-word report or a letter of complaint, creating a clear plan and structure is the crucial first step to getting your message across quickly and in the most effective way. Mindmapping, or organizing information visually with diagrams, can be a useful tool.

  人们写作常不拟提纲,结果导致写作各部分不连贯。不论你写的是万字报告还是投诉信函,拟写作提纲和写作结构都是至关重要的第一步,它能使你的思想快速有效地被他人理解。思维导图和采用可视图表组织信息都是不错的方法。

  4 Write for readers, not yourself

  4 写给读者看而不是自己

  Your aim in writing is to communicate ideas and information to other people, and you must keep that in mind with every word and sentence you write. Because you have a clear idea about what and why you are writing, it is easy to get carried away and include information that is important to you only—and nobody else. If you write it you could well be wasting your time and other people’s.

  写作的目的是要向他人传递思想与信息,写一词一句你都要牢记这一点。你了解自己写作的内容和原因,因此,很容易跑偏,写的信息只对自己有用而对他人毫无用处。这样不仅浪费自己的时间,也浪费他人的时间。

  5 Guide readers through what you write

  5 引导读者阅读

  Your task is to help readers understand your message quickly and precisely. To do this, it is necessary to show them clearly how the different parts relate to each other. Each sentence, each paragraph should be relevant to what comes before and what comes after. You should use words and phrases that connect or contrast to show these connections, for example, as a result, in this way, in contrast. Informative headings also help readers follow your train of thought, so don’t be afraid to use them.

  写作过程中你的任务是帮助读者快速准确地理解你的思想。为此,有必要向读者清晰地展示各个部分如何衔接。每个句子、每个段落都应与上下文有关。你应使用互相联系或互相转折的单词或短语来衔接,如:as a result(结果是), in this way(这样), in contrast(相反)。小标题也能帮助读者跟上你的思路,可以试着用一用。

  6 Use passive verbs appropriately

  6 适度使用被动语态

  In certain types of writing, such as scientific contexts, passive verbs are appropriate and widely used. But in more general writing people often use them inappropriately, or overuse them. The problem is that they can make writing sound impersonal when it needs to be personal because they highlight the action rather than the person performing it. But very often who is performing the action is a crucial part of the message.

  在有关科技等的文章中被动语被使用较频繁,也适合使用被动态,但在普通文章中被动态常被误用与滥用。主要问题是使用被动态会使本应该具有主观性的文章变得客观,因为被动态强调动作而非动作的执行者。但是往往谁做了这件事本身就是一个很重要的信息。

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