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写作你应该知道的10件事

2017-02-27 11:22

来源:Oxford Dictionaries

作者:

  1. Better writing: guide readers through what you write

  写作提高:通过你所写的内容来引导读者

  Your task is to help readers understand your message quickly and precisely. To do this, it is necessary to show them clearly how the different parts relate to each other.

  你的任务是帮助读者迅速且准确地理解你的信息。为了做到这一点,向他们清楚地展示每个不同部分之间的联系是很有必要的。

  Each sentence, each paragraph should be relevant to what comes before and what comes after.

  每个句子、每段话都应该与上下文有所联系。

  2. Word choice: avoid clichés and buzzwords

  选词:避免老生常谈和专业术语

  Clichés (used so often and so vaguely that they lose their original impact) and buzzwords/jargon can irritate readers and either distract them from your message or make them question its validity.

  老生常谈(经常被使用,表意不清且失去原有意义)和专业术语会引起读者的不快,既不能将他们吸引到你的文章上来,也会使他们质疑其有效性。

  3. Writing your CV/résumé: make your CV/résumé easy to read

  制作简历:使你的简历更具可读性

  Research shows that one thing recruiters expect in a CV/résumé is ease of reading. Ways of making yours easy to read include a brief summary of where you are now and where you want to go, short sentences and paragraphs, clear headings, good use of bullet points, and appropriate typefaces.

  研究表明,招聘者希望简历更易阅读。使简历更具阅读性的方法包括简单总结你所处的位置、短的句子和段落、清晰的标题、重点突出以及合适的字体。

  4. Writing a cover letter: tailor your cover letter

  求职信写作:使你的求职信更得体

  A generic cover letter simply will not do; make sure your letter is tailored to the job and company in question. Reflect the organization’s values and goals; research what it says about its history, current practice, mission statement, and so forth. But don’t just parrot their exact wording. It sounds robotic, and employers hate it.

  一般的求职信不会这样;你要确保你的求职信能够适合你考虑的职位和公司。反映出组织的价值和目标;研究一下其历史、现行实践、宗旨等等。但是不要机械地模仿他们的准确措辞。这听起来就很机械,也无法得到招聘者的青睐。

  5. Writing essays: understand your audience

  论文:了解你的读者

  The more you know about who will be reading your essay, the better. Readers who are experts on your topic will already have some background knowledge. Readers who are your age will be familiar with the same films and songs you’re likely to mention. The less you know about your audience, the more you’ll need to define your terms and provide context for your examples.

  你对于阅读你文章的读者越了解,效果就越好。对你的主题非常了解的读者已经有了一些基本的知识。和你同龄的读者会对你可能会提到的电影和歌曲感到熟悉。你对读者了解的越少,你就需要花更多的精力来解释你的措辞、并为语境举出例子。

  6. Writing a personal statement: create a strong opening

  个人陈述写作:有力的开头

  As with any other piece of writing, you need to get your readers’ attention. A compelling personal story can be an effective beginning. Let your story lead to a discussion of how you became interested in the type of work or education you are pursuing. You might also start by writing about someone you admire in the industry or organization.

  与其他的文体一样,你需要吸引读者的注意力。一个引人注目的个人故事可以成为一个有效的开头。使你的故事能够引入你对自己探寻的工作或教育产生兴趣的原因。你也可以以描写你在该行业或组织里敬仰的人物来开头。

  7. Online writing: create a good title

  网上写作:写一个好的标题

  Your title is one of the ways people find your piece. It should also make them want to read on. So it’s well worth investing time to get it right. The pay-off will be not only more readers but also readers who engage fully with what you write.

  你的标题是人们发现你的作品的方式之一。它也可以是人们产生阅读的兴趣。所以花些时间来想一个好的标题是非常值得的。如果你成功了,就可以吸引更多读者,也会使他们全神贯注地投入到你的作品中去。

  8. Creative writing: show rather than tell

  创造性写作:展示而非灌输

  Too much description, too many adjectives and adverbs, can slow up your narrative and cause your readers to lose interest. Where possible, it’s better to show your readers what a person, the atmosphere in the room, the relationship between your characters is like – show, that is, by what they say, how they interact, what they do. It’s more effective than telling the reader through wordy piles of information.

  太多的描述、太多的形容词和副词会使你的叙述变得慢起来,导致读者失去兴趣。可能的话,向你的读者展示一个人的样子、房间里的氛围、人物之间的关系,展示的意思,按他们的方式说,就是他们是怎样相互联系,做了什么。比起通过冗长的信息告诉读者情况,展示则更加有效。

  9. Writing a speech: write for the ear, not for the eye

  演讲稿写作:听觉性写作,而非视觉性写作

  Once you’ve finished a draft of your speech, practice reading it out loud. You’ll hear anything that sounds awkward. Revise so you are more comfortable giving your speech. You want to sound natural, no matter what the occasion.

  一旦你完成演讲稿的草稿,就将它大声读出来。你会听到一些不足的地方。将其进行修正,你就可以更加舒适地发表你的演讲。不管在什么场合,你的声音都要自然。

  10. Writing a review: explain how you’re judging the work

  综述写作:解释你评价作品的方式

  Decide on your criteria, the standards you’ll use to judge the book, show, or film. You might believe a novel is successful when it has characters you care about and a plot that makes you want to keep reading. State these criteria so your readers understand what you believe.

  决定了你的标准后,你会将其运用于书籍、展出或电影。你可能会相信,当一篇小说里有你在乎的人物,且情节引人入胜的时候,它就成功了。将这些标准成熟出来,你的读者就会对你所相信的事物表示理解。

(编辑:何莹莹)

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