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中考英语必考知识:初中英语难点“被动”语态用法全攻略

2019-11-06 15:27

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  英语中时态很多,但语态不多,只有两种,即:主动语态和被动语态。所谓“被动语态”,相当于中文中常说的“被……”、“由……”的句式,如:“他的自行车被偷了。”,“这座楼房是由他们建造的。”

  中考考纲中主要考查不同时态的被动语态和情态动词的被动语态。其中以一般过去时的被动语态、一般现在时的被动语态和一般将来时的被动语态为主,其次涉及到含有情态动词的被动语态和现在完成时的被动语态。卷面中被动语态所占分值为1-3分,一般分布在单选,完形填空,短文填空以及书面表达中。

  为了让同学们能够尽快掌握这部分的重难点,今天奇速君分享的就是被动语态的相关知识点。

  概念

  语态(Voice)是动词的一种形式,用以表示主语和谓语之间的关系。

  英语的语态包括两种形式:主动语态(active voice)和被动语态(passive voice)。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。被动语态是动词的一种特殊形式,一般来说,只有需要动作对象的及物动词才有被动语态。

  主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者。巧记为:主动、主动、主去动。Many people speak English.谓语:speak的动作是由主语many people来执行的。

  被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者,即行为动作的对象。巧记为:被动、被动、主被动。English is spoken by many people.主语English是动词speak的承受者。He opened the door.他开了门。(主动句)The door was opened.门被开了。(被动句)

  构成

  His bicycle was stolen.The building has been built in 2000.通过上面的例句,可以看出,“被动语态”的构成是:be + 过去分词 ( + by + 动作执行者)

  形式

  被动语态由助动词be加及物动词的过去分词构成,强调动作是由什么人或什么东西而发出时,常用介词“by +行为发出者”,即be+done+by+行为发出者。

  被动语态可用于各种时态,通过助动词be的变化来表示:

  1、一般现在时的被动语态. am / is / are + 动词的过去分词Our classroom is cleaned every day.This car is made in China.

  2、一般过去式的被动语态: was / were + 动词的过去分词His desk was cleaned just now.The station was built in 1928.

  3、现在进行时的被动语态: am / is / are + being + 动词的过去分词A new factory is being built in our city now.Some trees are being cut down in the park.

  4、过去进行时的被动语态: was / were + being + 动词的过去分词A new factory was being built in our city at that time.Some babies were being looked after by Miss Chen last year.

  5、一般将来时的被动语态:(A) will / shall + be + 动词的过去分词(B) am / is / are + going to be +动词的过去分词.Some new factories will be built in our city this year.Your watch is going to be mended in an hour.

  6、过去将来时的被动语态:(1)would / should + be + 动词的过去分词(2)was / were +going to be + 动词的过去分词.She said that some new factories would be built soon in our city.He thought that your watch was going to be mended after an hour.

  7、现在完成时的被动语态:have / has + been + 动词的过去分词Some new factories have been built in the city since last year.Your watch has been mended already.

  8、过去完成时的被动语态:had + been + 动词的过去分词He said that some new factories had been built in the city.I didn’t know that my watch had been mended .

  9、含情态动词的被动式:can/may/must + be + done(1)You must hand in your homework after class.Your homework must be handed in after class.(2)He can write a letter with the computer.A letter can be written with the computer by him.

  运用

  第一种情况:不知道动作的执行者,就是不知道谁干的Dan's bike was stolen last week. 丹的自行车上周被偷了。My windows were broken yesterday. 我的窗户昨天被打烂了。

  第二种情况:没有必要交代动作的执行者,就是说:不用说出来大家也知道谁干的Rice is also grown in North China. 华北地区也种水稻。A new railway station will be built next year. 明年要建一座新的火车站。

  第三种:为了强调动作的承受者,这里我们比较一下主动和被动:Prisoners of War built the bridge. 战俘修建了这座桥。此句的主句是 Prisoners of War,是来回答 Who built the bridge? 这个问句,所以此句强调的是动作的执行者---战俘,交代战俘做了什么事。变被动之后:The bridge was built by Prisoners of War.这座桥是被战俘修建的。这样说的话,主语变成了“the bridge”---这座桥,此句是回答 What was built? 所以此句是强调“什么被建造”即强调动作的承受者。又如:The book was written by Shi Naian. 这本书是施耐庵写的。

  以上是被动语态使用的三种情况或者说时机,第三种虽然强调动作的承受者,但一般也要交代动作的执行者,用 by + 执行者 来表达。

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