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学习总是记不住?教你如何改善记忆力

2016-11-15 10:37

来源:沪江

作者:

  The demands of private school classes, particularly in middle and high school, can require students to learn and remember huge amounts of material, particularly for final exams. Some students, while bright, struggle to retain information in their short-term and long-term memory, making it difficult to use this information and produce it on assessments and in class. Problems with memory consolidation can be frustrating, as students who do the work often find themselves unable to prove that they know the material.

  私立院校的班级,特别是在初高中,会要求学生学习和记忆大量的材料,尤其是期末备考时。一些学生虽然很聪明,却还是不得不短时或长时地记忆信息,因此在评估或是在班上的时候,会觉得使用并创作这些信息十分困难。怎样巩固记忆是一个让人郁闷的问题,因为学生们在记忆的时候会发现无法证明自己熟悉材料。

  Good study skills include methods to improve memory. Here are some memory tips to help students improve memory.

  好的学习技巧也包括改善记忆的方法。这里有一些帮助学生们改善记忆的建议。

  Tip 1: Use Sound Studying Techniques

  建议一:使用好的学习技巧

  The most important memory tip is to study actively and to space out one's studying to avoid cramming and to allow for memory consolidation. In order to retain information, students have to practice good study skills, including techniques for active reading.

  最重要的记忆方法就是发挥学习的积极性,并且利用碎片时间来学习,避免时间过于集中,从而巩固记忆。为了吸收信息,学生们需要使用好的学习技巧,包括活跃阅读的技巧。

  Rather than just reading passively, students should annotate their reading, underlining key passages, putting question marks next to what they haven’t understood, and writing summaries of their reading. They can also take notes on what they read. This type of review helps them transfer information to their long-term memory and helps them connect it to what they already know, improving memory consolidation. Simply reading a text will not help students internalize the information as much as actively reading it and taking notes. In general, strategies for improving memory rely on repetition over time, which allows students to internalize information. Students' test preparation is most effective when they have used effective study skills to prepare for tests.

  学生们不应该仅限于被动地阅读,而是应该做上注释,标出关键的段落,在不懂的地方画上问号。他们也可以在阅读时做做笔记。这种复习方式将信息转化为长久地记忆,并和他们已有的知识联系起来,从而促进记忆的巩固。仅仅是阅读一篇文章不能够帮助学生吸收信息,对他们进行活跃阅读和做笔记页没有益处。一般来说,改善记忆的模式取决于一次次的重复,使得学生能够吸收信息。当学生们使用有效的学习技巧来准备考试时,他们为考试所做的准备才是最能发挥效果的。

  Tip 2: Use Technology

  使用科技

  Some forms of technology help students improve memory by helping them retain information in their long-term memory. These programs help students with test preparation as well. For example, the free online program Quizlet enables students to create flash cards for different types of material they are studying—whether it is Spanish verbs, SAT vocabulary, or historical facts.

  一些科技可以通过帮助学生长时间地记忆信息来改善他们的记忆。这些程序也可以帮助学生备考。例如,免费的在线程序Quizlet可以针对不同类型的学习材料为学生们制作出闪存卡,不管是西班牙语动词,SAT词汇还是史实类均可。

  The program allows students to quiz themselves, and it presents them with the questions they answered incorrectly again and again until they get the questions right. This type of repetition is essential to transferring information into one’s long-term memory, and students can store their flash cards and return to them over time, enabling them to use more repetition over time. Students can also use paper flash cards too—as long as they keep reviewing them. In general, it’s helpful to review information over time, rather than cramming the night before a test. These study skills will help students transfer information to their long-term memory.

  科技程序可以是学生们进行自测,不断地向他们列出答错的问题,直到学生答对为止。这种类型的重复对于将信息转化为长时间的记忆非常重要,学生们可以一直保留这闪存卡,随时回顾,以确保能够重复使用。学生们也可以使用纸质的闪存卡,只要一直坚持回顾。一般来说,比起在考试前夜突击,一次次地回顾信息才是有帮助的。这些学习技巧可以帮助学生们将信息转化为长期记忆。

  Tip 3: Get Enough Sleep

  充足的睡眠

  One of the most important memory tips is to get to bed early. Students who do not sleep enough on a regular basis may find that sleep debt hurts their ability to store information in their memory. Research has shown that sleep helps students cement information in their long-term memory, and, without it, students may find their memories impaired (at least until they get enough sleep). Students need to practice good sleep hygiene, such as turning off electronic devices at least an hour before bed and starting to unwind before their bedtimes. Such strategies will improve their overall health and well-being as well. Research has shown that many private school students do not sleep enough, and sleep deprivation can impair students' memory consolidation.

  早早上床睡觉时最重要的记忆技巧之一。如果长期没有得到充足的睡眠,学生们会在记忆信息时感到吃力。有研究表明,睡眠可以帮助学生长时间的巩固信息,如果缺乏睡眠,学生们的记忆会受到损伤(至少在获得充足睡眠之前)。学生们需要养成好的睡眠保健习惯,例如至少在睡前一小时关闭电子设备,并进行睡前放松。这些模式也可以改善他们的整体安康。研究表明,许多私立学校学生没有得到充足的睡眠,而睡眠剥夺只会损伤学生们的记忆固化。

  Tip 4: Figure Out if There is A Larger Issue

  解决更严重的问题。

  Some students may find themselves struggling with memorization because of larger learning issues, such as ADHD or a learning disability. ADHD may interfere with a students’ ability to memorize or retain information, as the student may be contending with inattention or distractibility while learning. Inattention may interfere with the student’s ability to take in the information, retain it in his or her short-term memory, and store it in his or her long-term memory. If a student, teacher, or parent suspects that larger issues, such as ADHD or learning disabilities, are part of the picture, the student may benefit from having an educational evaluation, which looks at how the student learns and at each of the student’s many cognitive or brain functions, including memory. This information can often help students, teachers, and parents understand what is getting in a student’s way and find recommendations to help the student perform better.

  一些学生会发现自己在记忆方面特别吃力,因为他们在学习上存在更大的问题,例如注意力不集中症或者学习障碍。注意力不集中症会影响学生记忆和吸收信息的能力,因为学生在学习时会遇到注意力不集中的问题。注意力不集中会影响学生吸收信息,将其短时间保存,直至长时间的记忆的能力。如果学生,老师或家长怀疑这些更严重问题,例如注意力不集中症或学习障碍知是问题的一部分,学生们就会从教育评价中受益,因为其针对的是学生学习的方法和每个学生的认知或大脑功能,包括记忆。这个信息可以帮助学生,老师和家长理解学生学到了什么,并找到帮助学生变得更好的建议。

(编辑:何莹莹)

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