Being an expert at something really pays off. Just how good are top performers compared to everybody else?
Research shows in high complexity jobs like professional and sales roles, the top 10 percent produce 80 percent more than average and 700 percent more than the bottom 10 percent.
But as I'm sure you're aware, becoming the best ain't easy. As Bobby Knight once said, "Everybody has the will to win; few people have the will to prepare to win."
但你们也一定清楚，想要做到最好并不容易，就像Bobby Knight (著名篮球教练)所说：“每个都渴望成功，但只有少数人会为此做出准备。”
And one of the reasons why it's hard to become great is because a lot of what you've been told about how to learn, study, or train is wrong, wrong, and dead wrong.
So it's time to learn how to get better at gettin' better. Whether you want to be a great public speaker, study for exams, or improve your free throws, we're going to learn what methods research and experts recommend for becoming an expert at anything.
1. Predictor of expertise
I'm going to ask you one question. And this question will probably predict just how good you'll end up being at whatever it is you're passionate about.
How long are you going to be doing this?
Yeah, doing something for a long time probably correlates with being decent at it but that's not the point.
Committing in advance to being in it for the long haul made all the difference. Even when practicing the same amount, those who made a long-term commitment did 400 percent better than the short-termers.
From The Talent Code：With the same amount of practice, the long-term-commitment group outperformed the short-term-commitment group by 400 percent.
The long-term-commitment group, with a mere twenty minutes of weekly practice, progressed faster than the short-termers who practiced for an hour and a half.
When long-term commitment combined with high levels of practice, skills skyrocketed.
2. Find a mentor
Luke had Yoda. The Karate Kid had Mr. Miyagi. I'm sure Kung Fu Panda had somebody but I never saw that movie.
You get the picture.
When I spoke to Anders Ericsson, the professor who did the research behind the "10,000 hour rule" he said mentors were vital. But you knew that already.
曾为“一万个小时理论”作调研的Aders Ericsson, 说有个导师对于成功是非常重要的，这个你们肯定都知道。
So what does the research show about mentors that most people get wrong? Merely finding someone to help you that is already an expert doesn't cut it.
When I spoke to Shane Snow, author of Smartcuts, he said your mentor needs to care about you.
Here's Shane: In great mentorship relationships the mentor doesn't just care about the thing that you're learning, they care about how your life goes. They are with you for the long haul. They are willing to say, "No," and to tell you what you're doing is wrong.
Those kinds of relationships yield outsized results in terms of future salaries and happiness.
3. Start with what's important
David Epstein put it simply: "The hallmark of expertise is figuring out what information is important."
There are many components to any skill but practicing them all doesn't produce the same results.
When I spoke to Tim Ferriss, bestselling author of The 4-Hour Workweek he said: Do an 80-20 analysis and ask yourself, "Which 20 percent of these things I need to learn will get me 80 percent of the results that I want?"
畅销书《The 4-Hour Workweek》的作者Tim认为：你应该做个二八原则分析，问问你自己：“学哪20%的部分可以获得80%的知识?”
When Tim was learning chess from champion Josh Waitzkin (whose life was the basis for the film Searching for Bobby Fischer) they did things the opposite from how most chess instruction works.
They didn't start with the beginning of a chess game. They jumped straight to key moves that are applicable to the majority of interactions on the board. This allowed Tim to hang with top players after only a few days of practice.